Index

References are to paragraph numbers

 

A

access to the courts, 3.1., 16.6.

accountability mechanisms for public bodies, 17.5.

“Act”, 12.3.

adjudication, 26., 26.2.

administrative decision-making see judicial review; public powers

alternative dispute resolution (“ADR”), 26.

advantages over litigation, 26.

appropriateness, 26.1.

Arbitration Act, 26.

as complement to court proceedings, 26.

elements of scheme, 26.3.

forms, 26.2.

model clauses, 26.3.

terminology, 26.

amendment legislation, 13.1.

amendments to material incorporated by reference, 13.6.

annual reporting on exercise of exemption power, 14.2.

appeals, 25.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

availability, 25.

civil, 25.7., 25.11.

classes of appeal body, 25.6.

criminal, 25.5., 25.11.

hearings de novo, 25.8.

leave requirements on second right, 25.9.

limits on right, 25.9.

limits on subject matter, 25.10.

NZBORA right to justice, 25.11.

purpose, 25.

re-hearings, 25.8.

safeguards, 25.11.

time limits, 25.9.

arbitration, 26., 26.2.

Archives New Zealand, 17.5.

armed forces, application of statute to, 10., 10.1.

arrest, 3.1., 5., 21.5.

Attorney-General’s report of bill inconsistent with NZBORA right, 5.2.

Auditor-General

charge setting guidelines, 15.

consultation on proposed legislation, 17.5.

Autonomous Crown Entities, 17.2., 17.3.

 

B

banking information

application of Privacy Act, 7.

cross-border transfer, 7.3.

Bill of Rights 1688, 3.

Bill of Rights Act 1990 see New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (“NZBORA”)

bills

Attorney-General’s report of bill inconsistent with NZBORA right, 5.2.

Cabinet Manual requirements see Cabinet Manual

process and content see proposed legislation

bodies corporate, criminal liability, 21.4.

breach of legislation see civil remedies; compliance with legislation; criminal offences; infringement offences; pecuniary penalties; search powers

budget legislation, retrospectivity, 11.1.

burden and standard of proof

civil actions, 20.

criminal offences, 21.2., 21.3.

 

C

CabGuide

consultation within government, 1.3.

Māori issues, 4.5.

Cabinet circulars

appropriateness of not binding Crown, 10.2

criminal liability of Crown, 10.4.

Cabinet Manual

as a source of constitutional principles and values, 3.

avoidance of unnecessary legislation, 1.2.

consultation within government, 1.3.

delegated legislation, 13., 13.4.

“On the Constitution of New Zealand” essay, 3.

requirements for bills for legislative programme

Human Rights Act, 6.

international obligations, 8.

NZBORA, 5.

Privacy Act, 7.

Treaty of Waitangi, 4.

calculation of time and distance, 12.3.

case appraisal, 26.2.

choice of law and forum for decision-making, 9., 9.2.

civil liability, Crown immunity, 10.3.

civil proceedings

appeal procedure, 25.7., 25.11.

commencement against overseas parties, 9.4.

limitation periods, 24.2.

pecuniary penalties, 19.2., 23., 24.3.

trans-Tasman, 9.4.

civil remedies, 20.

appropriateness, 19.2., 20.1.

as alternative to creation of new legislation, 1.2.

creation, 20.2.

purposes of civil actions, 20.

reliance on existing remedy, 20.1.

sources, 20.

standard of proof, 20.

subject matter of disputes, 20.

Closer Economic Partnerships, 8.1.

Codes of Practice, privacy, 7.2.

“commencement”, 12.3.

commencement of delegated legislation, 13.1.

Commerce Commission, 25.4.

commercial offending, 21.6.

common law

as alternative to creation of new legislation, 1.2.

civil remedies, 20.

content and stability of, 2.

interaction with proposed legislation, 2.

conflicts or other interactions, 2.5.

duplication, 2.6.

identification and consideration of rules and principles, 2.4.

Māori rights and interests, 4.3.

powers, 16., 16.1.

search powers, 18.

statutory interpretation rules, 12.1.

variation, as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

“Commonwealth country”, 12.3.

companies, criminal liability, 21.4.

compensation for government acquisition of private property, 3.1.

compensation orders, 19.

complaints, 25.

see also appeals; judicial review

discrimination, 6.4., 25.4.

internal review by decision-making body, 25., 25.2.

Ombudsman investigations, 25.3.

privacy, 7.4., 25.4.

statutory office holders’ investigations, 25.4.

compliance with legislation, 19.

see also civil remedies; criminal offences; infringement offences; pecuniary penalties

appropriateness of regulatory tools, 19.2.

consultation on proposed legislation, 19.

Government’s role, 19.1.

limitation periods, 24.

criminal offences, 24.1.

infringement offences, 24.1.

pecuniary penalties, 24.3.

purpose, 24.

overview of options, 19.

registration and discipline of professions, 19.1.

concessions see exemption powers

confiscation of property, 3.1.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

Constitution Act 1986, 3.

constitutional conventions, 3.

constitutional principles and values, 3., 3.1.

“consular officer”, 12.3.

consultation on proposed legislation

appeal models, 25.8.

appeal subject matter, 25.10.

civil proceedings, limitation periods, 24.2.

civil remedies, 20.2.

compliance/enforcement methods, 19.

criminal offences, 21., 21.6.

cross-border issues, 9., 9.2.

delegated legislation, 13.2.

discrimination matters, 6.1., 6.3.

existing or prospective litigation rights, 11.4.

fee and levy-setting, 15.7.

Ombudsman, access rights, 25.3.

pecuniary penalties, 23.

privacy matters, 7., 7.3.

public body, creation of, 17., 17.1., 17.5.

Search and Surveillance Act matters, 18.

statutory office holders’ investigations, 25.4.

transitional provisions and savings provisions, 11., 11.6.

treaties/international obligations, 8., 8.1., 8.2.

tribunals

creation, 17.5.

creation of new statutory power, 16.7.

with departments/government agencies, 1.3.

with Māori, 4.2., 4.4., 4.5.

with public, 1.4.

consultation preconditions

exercise of a delegated power, 13.4.

exercise of a statutory power, 16.5.

contract

civil remedies for breach, 19.2., 20.

consideration of existing law before legislating, 2.4.

cost recovery see fees and levies

courts

access right, 3.1., 16.6.

cross-border issues see cross-border issues

existing or prospective litigation rights, 11.4.

infringement offences, 22.

“rules of court”, 12.3.

credit reports, application of Privacy Act, 7.

criminal offences, 21.

see also infringement offences

appeal procedure, 25.5., 25.11.

appropriateness, 19.2., 21.5.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

assessment of need for, 21.

burden and standard of proof, 21.2.

commercial context, 21.6.

consultation on proposed legislation, 21., 21.6.

cross-border issues, 9.5., 9.6.

defences, 21.3.

duplication of other penalty regimes, 21.

effects of conviction, 21.5.

liability, 21.4.

liability of Crown, 10.4.

limitation periods, 24.1.

mental element (mens rea), 21., 21.2.

penalties and sentencing, 21.6.

physical element (actus reus), 21., 21.1.

presumption against retrospectivity, 11., 11.1.

presumption of innocence, 21.2.

strict liability offences, 21.2., 21.3.

unacceptability of general provisions, 21.5.

Criminal Procedure Act 2011

appeal procedure, 25.5., 25.11.

effect of maximum penalties, 21.6.

limitation periods, 24.1.

criminal proceeds, 3.1.

cross-border issues

application of New Zealand law and forum for decision-making, 9., 9.2.

circumstances giving rise to, 9.1.

commencement of civil proceedings, 9.4.

consultation on proposed legislation, 9., 9.2.

criminal proceedings, 9.5.

investigative powers of enforcement agencies, 9.6.

Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act, 9.5., 9.6.

personal information transfer, 7.3.

recognition and enforcement of decisions, 9., 9.3.

trans-Tasman proceedings, 9.4.

Crown

application of statute to, 10.

appropriateness of not binding Crown, 10.2.

criminal liability, 10.4.

default position, 10., 12.2.

delegated legislation, 10.1.

financial liabilities that can be incurred, 10.2.

immunity from civil liability, 10.3.

partial application or exemption, 10.1.

“the Crown”, 10.

Crown Agents, 17.2., 17.3.

Crown entities

see also public bodies; public powers

creation, 17.2., 17.3.

delegation of statutory power, 16.3.

organisational forms, 17.3.

Crown entity companies, 17.3.

Crown Organisations (Criminal Liability) Act 2002, 10.4.

curfews, 3.1.

customary title and customary rights, 4.3.

 

D

damages, 19.2., 20.

date when legislation comes into force, 12.2.

“de facto partner” and “de facto relationship”, 12.3.

defence forces, application of statute to, 10., 10.1.

definitions of words and phrases, 12.3.

delegated legislation

application of, to Crown, 10.1.

Cabinet Manual requirements, 13., 13.4.

commencement, 13.1.

consultation on proposed legislation, 13.2.

disallowance, 13.4.

“empowering Act” and “empowering provision”, 13.

exemption power see exemption powers

exercise of power by delegate, 12.2.

extent of empowering provision, 13.2.

fee-setting and levy-setting regulations, 15.

inconsistency with NZBORA, 13.5.

inconsistency with primary legislation (Henry VIII clauses), 13.5.

incorporation by reference, 13.6.

infringement offences and, 22.2.

judicial review, 13.4.

lapse, 13.4.

matters appropriate for, 13.1.

matters ordinarily included in primary legislation, 13.1.

persons authorised to make, 13., 13.3.

preconditions to exercise of a delegated power, 13.4.

publication, 13.4.

purpose, 13.1.

Regulations Review Committee scrutiny, 13., 13.4.

retrospective effect, 13.5.

safeguards, 13.4.

special features of delegated power, 13.5.

sub-delegation, 13.5.

terminology, 13.

delegation of statutory power, 16.3.

Department of Internal Affairs, 17.5.

departmental agencies, 17.2., 17.3.

departments/ministries

see also public bodies; public powers; public service

application of statute to see Crown

civil liability, 10.3.

consultation on proposed legislation, 1.3.

creation, 17.2., 17.3.

criminal liability, 10.4.

expenditure, borrowing and taxation, 3.1.

as matters appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

detention, 3.1., 5., 21.5.

dignity of the individual, 3.1.

disallowance

delegated legislation, 13.4.

exemption power, 14.3.

discrimination

Cabinet Manual requirements, 6.

complaints, 6.4., 25.4.

consultation on proposed legislation, 6.1., 6.3.

direct and indirect, 6.

NZBORA right, 6.

inconsistent legislation and declaration of inconsistency, 6.4.

limitation, 6.1., 6.2.

prohibited grounds, 6.

dispensations see exemption powers

disputes

alternative dispute resolution see alternative dispute resolution (“ADR”)

civil remedies see civil remedies

right of access to the courts, 3.1., 16.6.

trade agreements, 8.1.

distance, calculation of, 12.3.

District Court Rules, appeal procedure, 25.7., 25.11.

 

E

education programmes/initiatives, 1.2., 19.

ejusdem generis principle, 12.1.

elections, 3.1.

Electricity Authority, 25.4.

“enactment”, 12.3.

enforceable undertakings, 19.

enforcement agencies

investigative powers, cross-border issues, 9.6.

search powers see search powers

enforcement of legislation see civil remedies; compliance with legislation; criminal offences; infringement offences; pecuniary penalties

enforcement of overseas decisions, 9., 9.3.

entry powers see search powers

environmental damage, 19.

equality before the law, 3.1.

equity, 2.4.

evidence

burden and standard of proof

civil actions, 20.

criminal offences, 21.2., 21.3.

Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act, 9.5.

powers to require production of information and privilege, 18.1.

exemption powers, 14.

annual reporting requirements, 14.2.

as delegated power, 14.

conditions, 14.4.

disallowance and publication, 14.3.

expiry, 14.2.

extent, 14.

need for, 14., 14.1.

review requirements, 14.2.

safeguards for exercise, 14.2.

terminology, 14.

exercise of statutory powers see public powers

existing common law see common law

existing legislation, 2.

as alternative to creation of new legislation, 1.2.

interactions with proposed legislation, 2.

conflicts or other interactions, 2.2.

duplication, 2.3.

“flag” provisions indicating relevant provisions of other legislation, 2.3.

identification and consideration, 2.1.

supplementation, 2.3.

precedents for proposed legislation, 2.7

existing powers see public powers

existing rights and obligations

effect of proposed legislation, 11.

effect of repealing legislation, 12.2.

“grandparenting”, 11.

matters subject of ongoing or prospective litigation, 11.4.

transitional and savings provisions, 11., 11.2., 11.3., 11.5., 11.6.

expenditure of money by government, 3.1.

expert determination, 26.2.

expert evaluation, 26., 26.2.

 

F

facilitation, 26.2.

fees and levies, 15.

amount of fee, 15.4.

amount of levy, 15.5.

appropriateness of fee, 15.1.

appropriateness of levy, 15.2.

confirmation process for levy, 15.7.

consultation with affected groups, 15.7.

cost recovery, 15.

empowering provisions, 15., 15.3.

fee and levy distinguished, 15.

guidance for setting, 15.

persons to be charged, 15.6.

refunds, 15.6.

special process for prescription, 15.7.

tax distinguished, 15.

waivers, 15., 15.6.

fiduciary obligations, 2.4.

foreign decisions, recognition and enforcement, 9., 9.3.

foreign legislation, precedents used in implementation of international agreements, 2.7.

foreshore and seabed, 4.3.

fraud, 3.1.

Free Trade Agreements, 8.1.

freedom of movement, 3.1.

fundamental rights and values, 3.1.

 

G

“Gazette”, 12.3.

gender, masculine, 12.3.

government branches, separation of powers, 3.1., 11.4.

Government Chief Privacy Officer, 7.

government departments see departments/ministries

“Governor”, 12.3.

Governor-General in Council

as defined term in Interpretation Act, 12.3.

power to make delegated legislation, 13., 13.3.

grammatical forms of words, 12.3.

“grandparenting”, 11.

 

H

Hague Convention, 9.2.

Health and Disability Commissioner, 25.4.

health and safety, criminal liability of Crown, 10.4.

health information, Code of Practice, 7.2.

Henry VIII clauses, 13.5.

High Court Rules, appeal procedure, 25.7., 25.11.

human rights

see also discrimination; New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (“NZBORA”)

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

dignity of the individual and fundamental rights, 3.1.

principle of legality, 3.1.

Human Rights Commission, 6.3., 25.4.

Human Rights Review Tribunal

discrimination complaints, 6.4.

privacy complaints, 7.4.

 

I

illegal goods, 3.1.

immunity of Crown from civil liability, 10.3.

imprisonment, 3.1., 21.5., 21.6.

incorporation by reference, 13.6.

Independent Crown Entities, 17.2., 17.3.

industry groups, levying of see fees and levies

information matching, 7.3.

Information Privacy Principles, 7.1.

see also privacy

information sharing, 7.3.

infringement offences, 22.

appropriateness, 19.2., 22.1.

authorisation and definition, 22.2.

court’s role, 22.

enforcement and challenges under Summary Proceedings Act, 22.3.

time limits, 24.1.

infringement fees, 22.

infringement notices, 22.2.

Ministry of Justice guidelines, 22.1.

no conviction on payment of fee, 22.1.

operational aspects, 22.2.

payment of fee, 22.2.

purpose, 22.

reminder notices, 22.3., 24.1.

setting of maximum penalty, 22.2.

special procedures, 22.2.

injunctions, 19., 19.2.

inspection powers see search powers

intellectual property rights

respect for, 3.1.

trade agreements, 8.1.

internal reviews, 25., 25.2.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”), 5., 5.2., 8.2.

international law, choice of law and forum for decision-making, 9., 9.2.

international obligations

compliance of legislation with, 3.1., 8.

legislation inconsistent with NZBORA right, 5.2.

treaties see treaties/international agreements

interpretation of statutes see statutory interpretation

iwi representatives, consultation with, 4.5.

 

J

judicial independence and impartiality, 3.1., 11.4.

judicial review, 25.

availability, 25.

consideration of existing law and principles before legislating, 2.4.

delegated legislation, 13.4.

exercise of exemption power, 14.2.

exercise of statutory power, 16.6.

purpose, 25.

restriction on right to apply for, 25.1.

 

K

Keith, Rt Hon Sir Kenneth, 3.

 

L

LAC guidance relating to judgments and pending proceedings, 11.4.

lakes, 4.3.

“land”, 12.3.

land use restrictions, 3.1.

Law Commission report on pecuniary penalties, 23., 24.3.

law enforcement see compliance with legislation; enforcement agencies; police; search powers

legal professional privilege, 18.1.

legality, principle of, 3.1.

Legislation Act 2012

Amendment Bill, 11., 12.

disallowable instruments under, 13.4.

exemption powers, disallowance and publication, 14.3.

incorporation by reference, requirements for, 13.6.

legislative instruments under, 13.4.

levies see fees and levies

liberty, presumption in favour of, 3.1.

licences and licensing

existing rights, 11.

fees for service or function, 15.1.

natural justice, 3.1.

limitation periods, 24.

criminal offences, 24.1.

infringement offences, 24.1.

pecuniary penalties, 24.3.

purpose, 24.

“limits of New Zealand”, 12.3.

litigation rights, existing, 11.4.

local authorities

delegation of statutory power, 16.3.

power to make delegated legislation, 13.3.

Local Government Official Information and Meetings Act 1987, 17.5.

 

M

Magna Carta 1297, 3.

management bans, 19., 19.2.

Māori

consultation, 4.2., 4.4., 4.5.

customary title and customary rights, 4.3.

Treaty of Waitangi see Treaty of Waitangi

masculine gender, 12.3.

mediation, 26., 26.2.

Ministers

as defined term in Interpretation Act, 12.3.

power to make delegated legislation, 13., 13.3.

ministries see departments/ministries

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (“MFAT”)

database of binding treaty obligations, 8.

trade agreements, 8.1.

Ministry of Justice

Human Rights Act guidelines, 6.

infringement offence guidelines, 22.1.

NZBORA guidelines, 5.

trans-Tasman proceedings information, 9.4.

Treaty settlements units, 4.2.

mixed ownership model companies, 17.3.

“month”, 12.3.

Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 1992, 9.5., 9.6.

 

N

National Interest Analysis (“NIA”), 8.

natural justice rules in exercise of a power, 3.1., 16.6.

negotiation, 26.2.

new legislation see proposed legislation

“New Zealand”, 12.3.

New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (“NZBORA”)

appeal procedure, safeguards, 25.11.

application of, 5.

as reflection of constitutional principles and values, 3.

Attorney-General’s report of inconsistent bill, 5.2.

Cabinet Manual requirements, 5.

criminal proceedings against defendant outside New Zealand, 9.5.

implementation of ICCPR, 5., 8.2.

inconsistent delegated legislation, 13.5.

inconsistent legislation, 5.2.

limitation of rights, 5.1., 5.2.

Ministry of Justice guidelines, 5.

pecuniary penalties, status of, 23.

presumption of innocence, 21.2.

principle of legality and, 3.1.

right to be free from discrimination, 6.

inconsistent legislation and declaration of inconsistency, 6.4.

limitation of right, 6.1., 6.2.

right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure, 18.

rights and freedoms affirmed, 5.

statutory interpretation and, 3.1., 5.2.

“North Island”, 12.3.

 

O

occupational groups

power to make delegated legislation, 13.3.

registration and discipline, 19.1

offences and penalties see criminal offences; infringement offences

Office of Controller and Auditor-General see Auditor-General

Office of the Ombudsman, 17.5., 25.3.

Office of Treaty Settlements (“OTS”), 4.2.

Officers of Parliament, 17.3.

Official Information Act 1982, 17.5., 25.3.

Ombudsman investigations, 25.3.

Ombudsmen Act 1975, 17.5., 25.3.

“On the Constitution of New Zealand: An Introduction to the Foundations of the Current Form of Government” (Keith), 3.

“Order in Council”, 12.3.

orders to repair harm done, 19.

ouster clauses, 25.1.

overseas decisions, recognition and enforcement, 9., 9.3.

 

P

Parliament

authorisation of departmental spending and borrowing, 3.1.

authorisation of new or increased taxes, 3.1.

treaty examination, 8.

parliamentary elections, 3.1.

parliamentary sovereignty, 3.1.

“part of the Commonwealth”, 12.3.

parts of speech, 12.3.

passport data, 7.3.

pecuniary penalties, 19.2., 23., 24.3.

penalties see criminal offences; infringement offences; pecuniary penalties

“person”, 12.3.

personal information see privacy

plural/singular words, 12.3.

police

application of statute to, 10., 10.1.

search powers see search powers

policy objective and purpose of legislation, 1.

consistency of new legislative provisions with, 1.5.

consultation with public, 1.4.

consultation within government, 1.3.

identification and clear definition, 1., 1.1.

non-legislative alternatives, 1.2.

Post Settlements Commitment Unit, 4.2.

precedents from existing legislation, 2.7.

“prescribed”, 12.3.

privacy

application of Privacy Act, 7.

banking information, 7., 7.3.

Cabinet Manual requirements, 7.

Codes of Practice, 7.2.

complaints, 7.4., 25.4.

consistency of proposed legislation with Privacy Act, 7.1.

effect of non-compliance, 7.5.

consultation on proposed legislation, 7., 7.3.

credit reports, 7.

cross-border transfer of personal information, 7.3.

Government Chief Privacy Officer, 7.

health information, 7.2.

information matching, 7.3.

Information Privacy Principles, 7.1.

information sharing, 7.3.

“personal information”, 7.

Privacy Commissioner, 7., 25.4.

Privacy Impact Assessments, 7.

public registers, 7.3.

respect for, 7., 7.5.

search powers and, 18., 18.1.

private law remedies see civil remedies

privative clauses, 25.1.

privilege, and powers to require production of information, 18.1.

procedural matters appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

proceeds of crime, 3.1.

“Proclamation”, 12.3.

professional groups

power to make delegated legislation, 13.3.

registration and discipline, 19.1

property

see also intellectual property rights

confiscation, 3.1.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

respect for rights, 3.1.

proposed legislation

alternative dispute resolution see alternative dispute resolution (“ADR”)

appeal rights and procedure see appeals

application of statute to Crown, 10.

appropriateness of not binding Crown, 10.2.

criminal liability, 10.4.

default position, 10., 12.2.

delegated legislation, 10.1.

financial liabilities that can be incurred, 10.2.

immunity from civil liability, 10.3.

partial application or exemption, 10.1.

“the Crown”, 10.

avoidance of unnecessary legislation, 1.2.

civil remedies see civil remedies

complaints mechanisms see complaints

compliance/enforcement methods, 19.

appropriateness of regulatory tools, 19.2.

consultation, 19.

Government’s role, 19.1.

overview of options, 19.

registration and discipline of professions, 19.1.

consistency with basic constitutional principles and values, 3., 3.1.

consistency with policy objective and purpose, 1.5.

consultation with Māori, 4.4., 4.5.

consultation with public, 1.4.

consultation within government, 1.3.

criminal offences see criminal offences

cross-border issues see cross-border issues

delegation of law-making powers see delegated legislation

discrimination see discrimination

exemption powers see exemption powers

fees and levies see fees and levies

identification and clear definition of policy objective and purpose, 1., 1.1.

infringement offences see infringement offences

interaction with common law, 2.

conflicts or other interactions, 2.5.

duplication, 2.6.

identification and consideration of rules and principles, 2.4.

interaction with existing legislation, 2.

conflicts or other interactions, 2.2.

duplication, 2.3.

“flag” provisions indicating relevant provisions of other legislation, 2.3.

identification and consideration, 2.1.

supplementation, 2.3.

interaction with existing rights and obligations, 11.

effecting of repealing legislation, 12.2.

matters subject of ongoing or prospective litigation, 11.4.

presumption against retrospectivity, 11., 11.1.

transitional and savings provisions, 11., 11.2., 11.3., 11.5., 11.6.

interaction with Te Ao Māori, 2.4.

internal review by decision-making body, 25., 25.2.

international obligations, compliance with see treaties/international agreements

judicial review see judicial review

limitation periods see limitation periods

Māori customary title and customary rights, 4.3.

New Zealand Bill of Rights Act see New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (“NZBORA”)

non-legislative alternatives, 1.2.

outline of bill, 1.1.

pecuniary penalties, 19.2., 23., 24.3.

precedents from existing legislation, 2.7.

privacy interests see privacy

public body, creation of see public bodies

search, surveillance and seizure see search powers

statutory powers see public powers

Treaty of Waitangi see Treaty of Waitangi

Public Audit Act 2001, 17.5.

public bodies

cost recovery see fees and levies

creation, 17.

accountability mechanisms, 17.5.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

consultation, 17., 17.1.

need for, 17., 17.1.

organisational forms, 17.3.

tribunals, 17.2., 17.4.

when legislation required, 17.2.

powers see public powers

public consultation, 1.4.

public finance and expenditure, 3.1.

as matters appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

Public Finance Act 1989

as reflection of constitutional principles and values, 3.

bodies under, 17.3.

liabilities that Crown can incur, 10.2.

“public notice”/”public notification”, 12.3.

public powers, 16.

see also judicial review

acting unlawfully, or ultra vires, 16.

delegation, 16.3.

exercise of

before Act comes into force, 12.2.

by delegate, 12.2.

by office holder’s deputy, 16.3.

immunity from civil liability, 10.3.

independence, 16.5.

independence of decision-maker, 16.6.

independent means of review or appeal, 3.1., 16.6.

matters to be taken into account or exclusion of certain matters, 16.5.

natural justice, 16.6.

natural justice principles, 3.1.

pre-requisite circumstances or procedural steps, 16.5.

process, 16.5.

safeguards for individuals affected, 16.6.

existing common law power, 16.1.

existing power relied on to perform new function, 16.1.

extent, 16.4.

holder of power/person exercising power, 16.2.

identification and purposes of, 16.5.

need for new power, 16.1.

power of a judicial nature, 16.2.

sources, 16.

specialist tribunals, 16.7.

Public Records Act 2005, 17.5.

public registers, 7.3.

public service

see also departments/ministries; public bodies

delegation of statutory power, 16.3.

power of chief executives to make delegated legislation, 13.3.

public servants

civil immunity, 10.3.

criminal liability, 10.4.

publication

delegated legislation, 13.4.

exemption power, 14.3.

purpose provision of an Act, 12.1.

 

R

recognition and enforcement of overseas decisions, 9., 9.3.

refund of fee or levy, 15.6.

“regulations”, 12.3.

Regulations Review Committee

scrutiny of delegated legislation, 13., 13.4.

exemption powers, 14.1.

fee-setting and levy-setting regulations, 15.

regulatory context, search powers in see search powers

Regulatory Impact Analysis Handbook, effective consultation guidelines, 1.4.

“repeal”, 12.3.

repealed legislation, effect on existing rights, powers, etc, 12.2.

Resource Management Act 1991, land use restrictions, 3.1.

retrospective legislation

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

delegated legislation, 13.5.

presumption against retrospectivity, 3.1., 11., 11.1.

reviews

see also appeals; judicial review

exercise of exemption power, 14.2.

internal review by decision-making body, 25., 25.2.

riverbeds, 4.3.

rule of law, 3.1.

“rules of court”, 12.3.

 

S

savings provisions, 11., 11.2., 11.3., 11.5., 11.6.

school boards of trustees, 17.3.

search powers, 18.

application of Search and Surveillance Act rules and procedure, 18.4.

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

balancing of values, 18.

declaratory orders, 18.5.

“fishing expeditions”, 18.1.

inspections in regulatory context, 18., 18.2., 18.3.

justification for new power, 18.1.

law enforcement objectives, 18., 18.1.

need for new power, 18.1.

NZBORA right, 18.

privacy and, 18., 18.1.

production of information and issues of privilege, 18.1.

production orders, 18.5.

regulatory objectives, 18., 18.1.

Search and Surveillance Act reforms, 18.

seized material, 18.5.

sources, 18.

surveillance, 18.5.

thresholds for exercise, 18.3.

warranted and warrantless searches, 18.2.

Security Intelligence Service, application of statute to, 10.

seizure powers see search powers

sentences and sentencing, 21.6.

separation of powers, 3.1., 11.4.

singular/plural words, 12.3.

“South Island”, 12.3.

specialist tribunals see tribunals

standard of proof

civil actions, 20.

criminal offences, 21.2., 21.3.

Standing Orders

as source of constitutional principles and values, 3.

Attorney-General’s report on bill inconsistent with NZBORA right, 5.2.

establishment and governance of Regulations Review Committee, 13.

imposition of levy using fee-setting power, 15.

State Owned Enterprises (“SOEs”), 17.3.

State Services Commissioner, 17.

statutory bodies and officers, power to make delegated legislation, 13., 13.3.

statutory interpretation

common law rules, 12.1.

ejusdem generis principle, 12.1.

Interpretation Act

as primary source of rules, 12.

ascertaining the meaning of an enactment, 12.1.

calculation of time and distance, 12.3.

consistency of proposed legislation with, 12.2.

date and time of day when legislation comes into force, 12.2.

definitions of words and phrases, 12.3.

effect of repealing legislation on existing rights, powers, etc, 12.2.

exercise of a power before commencement of an Act, 12.2.

exercise of a power by a delegate, 12.2.

exercise of power by office holder’s deputy, 16.3.

key rules, 12.1., 12.2.

masculine gender, 12.3.

parts of speech and grammatical forms of words, 12.3.

pending repeal of, 11., 12.

presumption against retrospectivity, 11.

transitional provisions and savings provisions, 11.3.

when Crown bound by legislation, 12.2.

NZBORA and, 3.1., 5.2.

right to be free from discrimination, 6.1.

Treaty of Waitangi and, 4., 4.7.

statutory office holders, complaints to, 25.4.

statutory powers see public powers

“step-” prefix, 12.3.

Strategic Economic Partnerships, 8.1.

strict liability offences, 21.2., 21.3.

sub-delegation of power to make delegated legislation, 13.5.

Summary Proceedings Act 1957, enforcement and challenges to infringement notices, 22.3., 24.1.

surveillance powers see search powers

 

T

taonga, 4.1.

taxes

as matter appropriate for primary legislation, 13.1.

authority to levy, 3.1.

fee or levy distinguished, 15.

retrospective legislation, 11.1.

Te Ao Māori, 2.4.

“territorial limits of New Zealand”, 12.3.

Tertiary Education Institutions, 17.3.

theft, 3.1.

time, calculation of, 12.3.

time of day when legislation comes into force, 12.2.

tort

civil remedies, 19.2., 20.

consideration of existing law before legislating, 2.4.

trade agreements, 8.1.

transitional provisions, 11., 11.2., 11.3., 11.5., 11.6.

trans-Tasman agreements, precedents used in implementation, 2.7.

Trans-Tasman Proceedings Act 2010, 9.4.

Treasury

charge setting guidelines, 15.

consultation on proposed legislation, 17.5.

Public Finance Act guidance, 10.2.

treaties/international agreements

access to text of treaty being implemented, 8.3.

Cabinet Manual requirements, 8.

compliance of legislation with obligations, 3.1., 8.

consistency of proposed legislation with existing obligations, 8.1.

consultation on proposed legislation, 8., 8.1., 8.2.

extent of obligations, 8.

incorporation of obligations into domestic law, 8.2.

MFAT database, 8.

non-binding instruments, 8.1.

Parliamentary treaty examination (and National Interest Analysis), 8.

precedents used in implementation, 2.7.

trade agreements, 8.1.

Treaty of Waitangi

as “living document”, 4.1.

as part of the constitution, 3.

Cabinet Manual requirements, 4.

consistency of proposed legislation with principles, 4.7.

constitutional significance, 4.

failure to consult as breach of principles, 4.4.

government obligations under, 4.

identification of affected Māori interests, 4.1.

respect for spirit and principles, 4.

safeguarding Māori interests, 4.6.

settlements, 4.2.

statutory interpretation and, 4., 4.7.

taonga, 4.1.

trespass, 3.1.

tribunals

see also public bodies; public powers

creation, 17.2., 17.4.

creation of new statutory power, 16.7.

trusts, 2.4.

 

U

ultra vires, 16.

 

W

Waitangi Tribunal, 4.2.

waiver of fee or levy, 15., 15.6.

waiver powers see exemption powers

“working day”, 12.3.

“writing”, 12.3.

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